SOUTH AFRICAN BORDER WAR

The South African Border War, commonly referred to as the Angolan Bush War in South Africa, was a conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 largely in South-West Africa (now Namibia) and Angola between South Africa and its allied forces (mainly the National Union for the Total Independence of Angola, UNITA) on the one side and the Angolan government, South-West Africa People's Organisation (SWAPO), and their allies (mainly Cuba) on the other. It was closely intertwined with the Angolan Civil War and the Namibian War of Independence. The Three Powers Accord were eventually signed on 22 December 1988 which paved the way for the withdrawal of foreign forces from Angola and Independence of a democratic Namibia. Estimated casualties and losses in combat on the South African side were 1791 dead, Cuba 3,000-10,000, SWAPO 11,335 with an unknown amount of dead civilians.

 

 

 RHODESIAN BUSH WAR

The Rhodesian Bush War — also known as the Second Chimurenga or the Zimbabwe War of Liberation — was a civil war that took place from July 1964 to December 1979 in the unrecognised country of Rhodesia (latterly Zimbabwe Rhodesia). The conflict pitted three forces against one another: the Rhodesian government, under Ian Smith (later the Zimbabwe Rhodesian government of Bishop Abel Muzorewa); the Zimbabwe African National Liberation Army, the military wing of Robert Mugabe's Zimbabwe African National Union; and the Zimbabwe People's Revolutionary Army of Joshua Nkomo's Zimbabwe African People's Union. The war and its subsequent Internal Settlement, signed in 1978 by Smith and Muzorewa, led to the implementation in June 1979 of universal suffrage and end of white minority rule in Rhodesia, which was renamed Zimbabwe Rhodesia under a black majority government. However, this new order failed to win international recognition and the war continued. Subsequent elections were held, ZANU won the election and Mugabe became the first Prime Minister of Zimbabwe on 18 April 1980, when the country achieved internationally recognised independence. Estimated casualties and losses on the Rhodesian side were 1361 dead whilst 15,000+ guerrillas were killed. An estimated 8500 civilians lost their lives.  

 

 SOUTH AFRICAN POLICE COUNTER INSURGENCY 1967 - 1992